Stratovolcanos are the most common types of volcanoes. A stratovolcano is conical-shaped, built up by many layers or strata of hardened erupted volcanic materials, including ash, lava, pumice and tephra. Due to the layer-based formation, a stratovolcano is also known as a compositve volcano. Some of the prominent stratovolcanos in the world include Ojos Del Salado of Chile, the highest volcano in the world, and iconic mountains, such as Mount Kilimanjaro of Tanzania and Mount Fuji of Japan.
Calderas are large cauldron-shaped formations due to ground surface collapsing or sinking into its underneath magma chamber, leaving behind a cauldron-like hollow on the surface. Some of the prominent calderas include the Yellowstone Caldera and the Crater Lake in the United States and Lake Toba of Indonesia.
Shield volcanoes generally have slope patterns that are gentler at lower elevations and steepens at higher elevations, before flatting near the summits. These slope patterns are a result of highly fluid lava flows from the volcanoes, resulting in the volcanoes' lower profile, which resembles a fallen shield lying face up on the ground. Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa of Hawaii, USA, are examples of shield volcanos.
Submarine volcanoes are seamounts or subsea fissures from which magma can erupt. Most of these submarine volcanoes are formed near mid-ocean ridges at the edges of tectonic plates