The Henley Passport Index is the ranking of all the world’s passports according to the number of destinations their holders can access visa-free. The creator of this index, Henley & Partners, has analysed the visa regulations of countries in the world since 2006.
Scoring. The score is calculated as the number of countries that a specific passport can access becomes its visa-free
Globally. As of March 2019, the countries with the most powerful passports are Japan, Singapore and South Korea, with their holders capable of visiting 189 countries visa-free. The countries with the least powerful passports are Iraq and Afghanistan, with their holders being able to visit only 30 countries visa-free.
South America. Chile, Argentina and Brazil are the top ranked countries in South America with the most powerful passports, enabling visa-free access to 176 (Chile) and 171 (Argentina, Brazil) countries respectively.
The most limiting passports in South America belong to Bolivia and Suriname, which offer visa-free access to 78 and 79 countries respectively.
Tallest Roman Catholic Churches in South America. At 124 meters, the Cathedral of Maringá stands the tallest in South America. It was completed in 1972 and its modernist, conical shape was designed by architect José Augusto Bellucci based on the inspiration from the Soviet sputnik satellites.
At second with 115 meters, is the Basílica del Voto Nacional located in the historic center of Quito, Ecuador. The basilica was blessed by Pope John Paul II on January 30, 1985, and it was consecrated and inaugurated on July 12, 1988.
At 113 meters, Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of Rosary, Manizales, or Manizales Cathedral ranks third tallest in South America.
The combined value of the world's top 100 games markets is estimated to be US$134 billion. By region, the size of South America's games market is US$2.8 billion or 2% of the combined total, a distant figure from the game revenues of North America, Asia and Europe.
The top 3 games countries in South America are :
This data is derived from Newzoo's 2018 study of the top 100 games markets ranked on their revenue estimates (refer to URL below).
According to Newzoo, the data estimates are based on a combination of primary consumer research, transactional data, quarterly company reports, and census data. The revenues are based on consumer spending in each country and exclude hardware sales, tax, business-to-business services, and online gambling and betting revenues.
All figures, include the country populations, Internet populations and total games revenues are stated in millions.
The top 50 busiest airports in North America processed a total of 1.5 billion passengers in 2017.
Handling the lion's share of this traffic at 104 million passengers, is the Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport. The Atlanta airport has been the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. This milestone can be attributed to Atlanta's location as a major connecting hub and port of entry into North America. In fact, Atlanta is well situated within a two-hour flight radius of 80% of the United States population of around 330 million.
Toronto Pearson International Airport is the largest and busiest airport by passenger traffic in Canada, handling 47.1 million passengers in 2017. In 2018, the Airports Council International (ACI), the global organization representing the world's airports, awarded the Toronto Pearson International Airport the title of Best Large Airport and the Airport Service Quality (ASQ) Award.
A useful guide for travellers North America in Europe: Today, about 13 North American countries and territories practise right-hand traffic (RHT) for their roads.
Right-hand traffic (RHT) is the practice of keeping to the right side of the road, in bidirectional traffic. In RHT, vehicles keep right and the cars are left-hand drive (LHD) with the steering wheel on the left-hand side of the car.
Click here for the list of North American countries and territories that practise left-hand traffic (LHT) driving.
The 2019 Index of Economic Freedom is an index developed by the Heritage Foundation. The Index covers 12 freedoms – from property rights to financial freedom – in 186 countries.
The Heritage Foundation defines "economic freedom" as the fundamental right of every human to control his or her own labor and property and believes that the ideals of economic freedom are strongly associated with healthier societies, cleaner environments, greater per capita wealth, human development, democracy, and poverty elimination. For more information, please visit the Heritage Foundation website below:
50 States of the USA. These are the 50 states of the United States of America, making the 327 million population, 9.834 million km2 land area and US$19 trillion GDP of the USA.
The Largest States. Alaska, with a total area of 1,723,337km2, of which 245,384 km2 (14%) is the total area of water bodies (rivers, lakes) in Alaska. Next largest state is Texas at 695,662km2 of which 2.7% are water areas and California at 423,967km2 with 4.8% of water areas.
The Most Populated States. California, with a population of 39,536,653. Followed by Texas, the Lone Star State, with a population of 28,304,596 and Sunshine State, Florida with 20,984,400 people.
These are the rivers with the largest drainage areas in the South America. The King of rivers, the Amazon River, drains from an enormous area as large as 7,050,000 km2, only slightly smaller than the land area of Australia. The collected water flows along Brazil, Peru, Bolivia and Colon before finally emptying into the Atlantic Ocean.
The Paraná River receives inflows from an area of 2,582,672 km2, an area as large as the states of Alaska and Texas combined, flowing along Brazil and Argentina before winding up at the Río de la Plata estuary.
A useful guide for travellers planning to drive in South American countries and territories. Most South American territories practise right-hand traffic, with the remaining - Guyana and Suriname - practising left-hand traffic for the roads.
Likewise, left-hand traffic (LHT) is the practice of keeping to the left side of the road, in bidirectional traffic. In LHT, vehicles keep left and the cars are right-hand drive (RHD) with the steering wheel on the right-hand side of the car.
Compared to the sovereign wealth funds in North America, Asia and the Middle East, the SWFs in South America are lesser in asset size.
Topping the list, the Social and Economic Stabilization Fund (SESF) of Chile, started since 2007, manages close to US$15 billion in assets. Copper exports stands for more than one third of the Chilean government's income. Thus, the SESF acts as a stabilizer to the variability of global copper prices. Whenever the price of copper increased, the government would direct a proportion of the increased revenues into the SESF. However, when the price of copper fellow below its expected level, the fund will then be tapped to make up for the shortfall in government income due to the drop in copper prices.
The Pension Reserve Fund is another SWF of Chile. Started since 2006 with US$604.5 million, it has grown to close to US$9.4 billion in assets. The Pension Reserve Fund was was established to prepare for and support future government expenditures for Chile’s new demographic scenario of increased life expectancy and elderly population.